Homo Floresiensis courtesy of Karen Neoh on Flickr, CC BY 2.0Homo floresiensis, nicknamed Hobbit, was a close relative of modern humans that lived on Flores between 94,000 and 17,000 years ago and stood a mere 3.5 feet tall.  It had the smallest brain of any known member of the human family, but it is known to have used stone tools and hunted the pygmy elephants and giant rats that shared its island home.  Although there is still much debate, the diminutive stature of H. floresiensis might suggest that this species is an example of isular dwarfism.